What Are Mycorrhizae?

Can Mycorrhizae Inoculation Help a Landscape or Crop Use Less Water and Less Fertilizer?

The objective of this document is to show and examine mycorrhizal research papers published in Journals of Science to validate the current evidence that support the statements and claims of water conservation and fertilizer management provided by Mycorrhizal inoculation. 

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Keep in mind that the following abstracts may be using mycorrhizal names that have been changed in recent years as genome information has become more clear.  

The statements to verify are:

▪ Uses up to 30% less water,

▪ Increased root mass and

▪ Increased fertilizer efficiency.

 

All papers presented sections on material and methods including experimental design, results and discussions. The studies were performed in diverse environments that range from complete sterile systems, to greenhouse and nurseries to agricultural soils. The number of species used varied in each study but the most commonly used species were G. intraradices and G. deserticola.

This compilation of research published in peer review journals of science will show clear evidence that the mycorrhization of a landscape, crop, slope re-vegetation site, and even a permaculture project will indeed benefit from mycorrhization of the plants in those landscapes helping them becoming more tolerant of water stress along with needing less fertilization input.

 

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Research Abstracts on WATER USE

Auge, R. M., Kurt A. Schekel and R.L. Wample. 1987. Leaf water and carbohydrate status of VA mycorrhizal rose exposed to drought stress. Plant and Soil 99:291-302.

Al-Karaki, G.N. 1998. Benefit, cost and water-use efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal durum wheat grown under drought stress. Mycorrhiza 8:41-45.

Al-Karaki, G.N. and R. B. Clark. 1998. Growth, mineral acquisition, and water use by mycorrhizal wheat grown under water stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21:263-276.

Al-Karaki, G.N. and R. B. Clark. 1999. Varied rates of mycorrhizal inoculums on growth and nutrient acquisition by barley grown with drought stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22:1775-1784.

Al-Karaki, G.N., B. McMichael and John Zak. 2004. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza14:263-269.

Bethlenfalvay, G.J. M.S. Brown, R.N. Ames and R.S. Thomas. 1988. Effects of drought on host and endophyte development in mycorrhizal soybeans in relation to water use and phosphate uptake. Physiologia plantarum 72:565-571.

Borkowska, B. 2002. Growth and photosynthetic activity of micropropagated strawberry plants inoculated with endomycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and growing under drought stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 24:365-370.

Amico, J.D., A. Torrecillas, P. Rodrigiez, A. Morte and M.J. Sanchez-Blanco. 2002. Responses of tomato plants associated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus clarum during drought and recovery. Journal of Agricultural Science 138:387-393.

Fidelibus M.W., C.A. Martin and J.C. Stutz. 2001. Geographic isolates of Glomus increase root growth and whole-plant transpiration of Citrus seedlings grown with high phosphorus. Mycorrhiza 10:231-236.

Hardie, K. and L. Leyton. 1981. The influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal on growth and water relations of red clover. I. In phosphate deficient soil. New Phytologist 89:599-608.

Tobar, R. R. Azcon and J.M. Barea. 1994. Improved nitrogen uptake and transport from 15Nlabelled nitrate by external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal under water-stressed conditions. New Phytologist 126:119-122.

 Tobar, R.M., R. Azcon, J.M. Barea. 1994. The improvement of plant N acquisition from an ammonium-treated, drought-stressed soil by the fungal symbiont in arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhiza 4:105-108.

Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., R. Azcon and M.Gomez. 1995. Effects of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Glomus species on drought tolerance: Physiological and nutritional plant responses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:456-460

Nikolaou, N., K. Angelopoulos, and N. Karagiannidis. 2003. Effects of drought stress on mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cabernet sauvignon grapevine, grafted onto various rootstocks. Expl. Agric 39:241-252.

Subramanian, K.S., C. Charest, L.M. Dwyer and R.I. Hamilton. 1995. Arbuscular mycorrhizas and water relations in maize under drought stress at tasselling. New Phytologist 129:643-650.

Subramanian, K.S., C. Charest. 1999. Acquisition of N by external hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and its impact on physiological response in maize under drought-stressed and well-watered conditions. Mycorrhiza 9:69-75.

Subramanian, K.S., P. Santhanakrishnan, P. Balasubramanian. 2006. Responses of field grown tomato plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization under varying intensities of drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae 107:245-253.

Runjin, L. 1989. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and phosphorus on water status and growth of apple. Journal of Plant Nutrition 12:997-1017.

Tarafdar, J.C. and Praveen-Kumar. 1996. The role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on crop, tree and grasses grown in an arid environment. Journal of Arid Environments 34:197-203.

Research Abstracts on ROOT MASS.

Al-Karaki, G.N. 1998. Benefit, cost and water-use efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal durum wheat grown under drought stress. Mycorrhiza 8:41-45.

Al-Karaki, G.N. and R. B. Clark. 1999. Varied rates of mycorrhizal inoculums on growth and nutrient acquisition by barley grown with drought stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22:1775-1784.

Aguilera-Gomez, L., F.T. Davies, Jr., V. Olalde-Portugal, S.A. Duray and L. Phavaphutanon. 1999. Influence of phosphorus and endomycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices) on gas exchange and plant growth of chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. San Luis).

Brejeda, J.J., L.E. Moser and K.P. Vogel. 1998. Evaluation of Switchgrass rhizosphere microflora for enhancing seedling yield and nutrient uptake. Agron. J. 90:753-758.

Fidelibus M.W., C.A. Martin and J.C. Stutz. 2001. Geographic isolates of Glomus increase root growth and whole-plant transpiration of Citrus seedlings grown with high phosphorus. Mycorrhiza 10:231-236.

Hardie, K. and L. Leyton. 1981. The influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal on growth and water relations of red clover. I. In phosphate deficient soil. New Phytologist 89:599-608.

Corkidi, L., E.B. Allen, D. Merhaut, M.F. Allen, J. Downer, J. Bohn and M. Evans. 2005. Effectiveness of commercial mycorrhizal inoculants on the growth of Liquidambar styraciflua in plant nursery conditions. J. Environ. Hort. 23:72-76.

Scagel, C.F., K. Reddy and J.M. Armstrong. 2003. Mycorrhizal fungi in rooting substrate influences the quantity and quality of roots on stem cuttings of hick’s yew. Hortechnology 13:62-66.

Yano-Melo, A.M., O.J. Saggin Jr., J.M. Lima-Filho, N.F. Melo and L.C. Maia. 1999. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets. Mycorrhiza 9:119-123.

Research Abstracts on Fertilizer Efficiency. 

Aguilera-Gomez, L., F.T. Davies, Jr., V. Olalde-Portugal, S.A. Duray and L. Phavaphutanon. 1999. Influence of phosphorus and endomycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices) on gas exchange and plant growth of chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. San Luis).

Al-Karaki, G.N. 1998. Benefit, cost and water-use efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal durum wheat grown under drought stress. Mycorrhiza 8:41-45.

Al-Karaki, G.N. and R. B. Clark. 1999. Varied rates of mycorrhizal inoculums on growth and nutrient acquisition by barley grown with drought stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22:1775-1784.

Al-Karaki, G.N., B. McMichael and John Zak. 2004. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza14:263-269.

Bethlenfalvay, G.J. M.S. Brown, R.N. Ames and R.S. Thomas. 1988. Effects of drought on host and endophyte development in mycorrhizal soybeans in relation to water use and phosphate uptake. Physiologia plantarum 72:565-571.

Brejeda, J.J., L.E. Moser and K.P. Vogel. 1998. Evaluation of Switchgrass rhizosphere microflora for enhancing seedling yield and nutrient uptake. Agron. J. 90:753-758.

Fidelibus M.W., C.A. Martin and J.C. Stutz. 2001. Geographic isolates of Glomus increase root growth and whole-plant transpiration of Citrus seedlings grown with high phosphorus. Mycorrhiza 10:231-236.

Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., R. Azcon and M.Gomez. 1995. Effects of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Glomus species on drought tolerance: Physiological and nutritional plant responses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:456-460.

Subramanian, K.S., C. Charest. 1999. Acquisition of N by external hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and its impact on physiological response in maize under drought-stressed and well-watered conditions. Mycorrhiza 9:69-75.

Tobar, R. R. Azcon and J.M. Barea. 1994. Improved nitrogen uptake and transport from 15Nlabelled nitrate by external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal under water-stressed conditions. New Phytologist 126:119-122.

Yano-Melo, A.M., O.J. Saggin Jr., J.M. Lima-Filho, N.F. Melo and L.C. Maia. 1999. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets. Mycorrhiza 9:119-123.

Jin, H., P.E. Pfeffer, D.D. Douds, E. Piotrowski, P.J. Lammers and Y. Sachar-Hill. 2005. The uptake, metabolism, transport and transfer of nitrogen in an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytologist 168:687-696.

Waterer, D.R. and R.R Coltman. 1989. Response of mycorrhizal bell peppers to inoculation timing, phosphorus, and water stress. HortScience 24:688-690.

Tobar, R.M., R. Azcon, J.M. Barea. 1994. The improvement of plant N acquisition from an ammonium-treated, drought-stressed soil by the fungal symbiont in arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhiza 4:105-108.

Tarafdar, J.C. and Praveen-Kumar. 1996. The role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on crop, tree and grasses grown in an arid environment. Journal of Arid Environments 34:197-203.

Subramanian, K.S., P. Santhanakrishnan, P. Balasubramanian. 2006. Responses of field grown tomato plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization under varying intensities of drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae 107:245-253.

Runjin, L. 1989. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and phosphorus on water status and growth of apple. Journal of Plant Nutrition 12:997-1017.

PHYTOREMEDIATION

Yu, X., J. Cheng and M.H. Wong. 2005. Earthworm-mycorrhiza interaction on Cd uptake and growth of ryegrass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37:195-201.